Condensation

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vaporization.[1] When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition. Initiation Condensation is initiated by the formation of atomic/molecular clusters of that species within its gaseous volumelike rain drop or snow-flake formation within cloudsor at the contact between such gaseous phase and a (solvent) liquid or solid surface. [edit]Reversibility scenarios A few distinct reversibility scenarios emerge here with respect to the nature of the surface. absorption into the surface of a liquid (either of the same substance or one of its solvents)is reversible as evaporation.[1] adsorption (as dew droplets) onto solid surface at pressures and temperatures higher than the species' triple pointalso reversible as evaporation. adsorption onto solid surface (as supplemental layers of solid) at pressures and temperatures lower than the specie's triple pointis reversible as sublimation. [edit]Most common scenarios Condensation commonly occurs when a vapor is cooled and/or compressed to its saturation limit when the molecular density in the gas phase reaches its maximal threshold. Vapor cooling and compressing equipment that collects condensed liquids is called a "condenser". [edit]How condensation i

measured Psychrometry measures the rates of condensation from and evaporation into the air moisture at various atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Water is the product of its vapor condensationcondensation is the process of such phase conversion. [edit]Applications of condensation Condensation is a crucial component of distillation, an important laboratory and industrial chemistry application. Because condensation is a naturally occurring phenomenon, it can often be used to generate water in large quantities for human use. Many structures are made solely for the purpose of collecting water from condensation, such as air wells and fog fences. Such systems can often be used to retain soil moisture in areas where active desertification is occurringso much so that some organizations educate people living in affected areas about water condensers to help them deal effectively with the situation.[2] It is also a crucial process in forming particle tracks in a cloud chamber. In this case, ions produced by an incident particle act as nucleation centers for the condensation of the vapor producing the visible "cloud" trails. [edit]Biological adaptation Numerous living beings use water made accessible by condensation. A few examples of these are the Australian Thorny Devil, the darkling beetles of the Namibian coast, and the Coast Redwoods of the West Coast of the United States.